Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a degenerative brain disease found in athletes, military veterans, and others with a history of repetitive brain trauma. CTE has a long history and was first described in 1928, when Dr. Harrison Martland described a group of boxers as having “punch drunk syndrome.”
In CTE, a protein called Tau forms clumps that slowly spread throughout the brain, killing brain cells. CTE has been seen in people as young as 17, but symptoms do not generally begin appearing until years after the onset of head impacts.
Early symptoms of CTE usually appear in a patients’ late 20s or 30s, and affect a patients’ mood and behavior. Some common changes seen include impulse control problems, aggression, depression, and paranoia.
As the disease progresses, some patients may experience problems with thinking and memory, including memory loss, confusion, impaired judgment, and eventually progressive dementia. Cognitive symptoms tend to appear later than mood and behavioral symptoms, and generally first appear in a patient’s 40s or 50s. Patients may exhibit one or both symptom clusters. In some cases, symptoms worsen with time (even if the patient suffers no additional head impacts). In other cases, symptoms may be stable for years before worsening. Learn more.
If you are concerned that you or someone you care about has CTE, you are not alone. There is help. Many symptoms of CTE are treatable, and resources are available to help you find support and live a full life. Learn more about coping with CTE here.
If you are struggling to cope and would like some emotional support, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 to connect with a trained counselor. It’s free, confidential, and available to everyone in the United States. You do not have to be suicidal to call.
CTE is a disease of the brain. To really understand the science of what’s going on, we’ll need to compare the differences between a healthy brain, and one with CTE. We’ll also look at how CTE spreads (even without additional head impacts) and how researchers are working toward solving the biggest hurdle in CTE today: How can we diagnose CTE in a living person? Learn more.
Led by Dr. Ann McKee, the VA-BU-CLF Brain Bank is a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston University and the Concussion Legacy Foundation, and housed at the VA Boston Healthcare System, is the largest Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) brain bank in the world. The numbers are staggering – more than 640 brains donated, nearly 400 confirmed cases of the neurodegenerative disease CTE, 110 of 111 former NFL players diagnosed with CTE. The VA-BU-CLF Brain Bank has created an undeniable body of evidence that repetitive brain trauma can lead to CTE. Learn more.
The best evidence available today suggests that CTE is not caused by any single injury, but rather by years of regular, repetitive brain trauma. Importantly, the evidence does not suggest a certain number of concussions that lead to CTE. In fact, there have even been numerous people diagnosed with CTE who were never diagnosed with a concussion. Researchers believe that the repetitive brain trauma that can cause CTE can be predominantly made up of subconcussive hits. Learn more.
Similar to organ donation, the pledge of one's brain is a precious gesture that helps others in a truly impactful way. Soccer icon Brandi Chastain, NASCAR superstar Dale Earnhardt Jr., and Football Hall of Famer Nick Buoniconti are among the most recent to make the pledge. Click here to sign up to pledge your brain.
Hope and help are available and happening every day. Many symptoms of CTE are treatable, and there are resources to help you find support and live a full life. Learn more.
The Concussion Legacy Foundation Global Brain Bank was created to accelerate research by collaborating with leading scientists at brain banks around the globe to understand, prevent, treat, and eventually cure CTE and other consequences of sports-related brain trauma. In 2018, we announced collaborations in Australia and Brazil. Learn more.